Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Structure Dependency and Grammar

Structure Dependency and Grammar The linguistic principle that grammatical processes function primarily on structures in sentences, not on single words or sequences of words is termed structure-dependency. Many linguists view structure-dependency as a principle of universal grammar. The Structure Of Language The principle of structure-dependency compels all languages to move parts of the sentence around in accordance with its structure rather than just the sheer order of words. . . .Structure-dependency could not be acquired by children from hearing sentences of the language; rather, it imposes itself on whatever language they encounter, just as in a sense the pitch range of the human ear restricts the sounds we can hear. Children do not have to learn these principles but apply them to any language they hear. (Michael Byram, Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning. Routledge, 2000)All speakers of English know structure-dependency without having given it a moments thought; they automatically reject *Is Sam is the the cat that black? even if they have never encountered its like before. How do they have this instant response? They would accept many sentences that they have never previously encountered, so it is not just that they have never heard it before. Nor is structure -dependency transparent from the normal language they have encounteredonly by concocting sentences that deliberately breach it can linguists show its very existence. Structure-dependency is, then, a principle of language knowledge built-in to the human mind. It becomes part of any language that is learned, not just of English. Principles and parameters theory claims that an important component of the speakers knowledge of any language such as English is made up of a handful of general language principles such as structure-dependency. (Vivian Cook, Universal Grammar and the Learning and Teaching of Second Languages. Perspectives On Pedagogical Grammar, ed. by Terence Odlin. Cambridge University Press, 1994) Interrogative Structures ​One example of a universal principle is structure-dependency. When a child learns interrogative sentences, it learns to place the finite verb in sentence initial position: (9a.) The doll is pretty(9b.) Is the doll pretty?(10a.) The doll is gone(10b.) Is the doll gone? If children lacked insight into structure-dependency, it should follow that they make errors such as (11b), since they would not know that the doll is pretty is the sentence to be put in the interrogative form: (11a.) The doll that is gone, is pretty.(11b.) *Is the doll that (0) gone, is pretty?(11c.) Is the doll that is gone (0) pretty? But children do not seem to produce incorrect sentences such as (11b), and nativist linguists therefore conclude that insight into structure-dependency must be innate. (Josine A. Lalleman, The State of the Art in Second Language Acquisition Research. Investigating Second Language Acquisition, ed. by Peter Jordens and Josine Lalleman. Mouton de Gruyter, 1996) The Genitive Construction ​The genitive construction in English can . . . help us illustrate the concept of structure- dependency. In (8) we see how the genitive attaches to the noun student: (8) The students essay is very good. If we construct a longer noun phrase, the genitive s will come at the very end, or edge, of the NP, independently of the category of the word: (9) [That young student from Germany]s essay is very good.(10) [The student you were talking to]s essay is very good. The rule that determines the genitives construction is based on the Noun Phrase: s is attached to the edge of the NP. (Mireia Llins et al., Basic Concepts for the Analysis of English Sentences. Universitat Autà ²noma de Barcelona, 2008) Also Known As: syntactic structure-dependency

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Lord of the Flies Essay

Lord of the Flies Essay Lord of the Flies Essay Lord of the Flies Essay Lord of the Flies book is interesting to read but it is not easy to write good essays about. If you are writing an essay about Lord of the Flies, you should at least read the book and be able to recall the major themes and main characters. If you need individual assistance with essay writing, you can always rely on us. We are working hard to help our clients with their assignments and we are proud to be trusted by thousands of customers throughout the English speaking world. Our prices are reasonable and we provide plagiarism report. We guarantee authenticity and we bear full responsibility for the quality of essay we write. In addition, you may find tips on how to write a critical analysis essay and guide on how to write a book report useful. All articles in our blog are written with the hope to help you with good essay writing. Lord of the Flies Essay Sample Lord of the Flies has 'a pretty big connexion' with Ballantyne. In The Coral Island Ralph, Jack and Peterkin are cast away on a desert island, where they live active, civilized, and civilizing lives. Practical difficulties are easily surmounted; they light fires with bowstrings and spyglasses, hunt pigs for food, and kill them with much ease and a total absence of guiltindeed of bloodshed. They are all Britonsa term they use to compliment each other all brave, obedient and honourable. There is much useful information conveyed concerning tropical islands, including fieldworkers' reporting of the conduct of cannibals: but anthropology is something nasty that clears up on the arrival of a missionary, and Jack himself prevents an act of cannibalism by telling the flatnoses not to be such blockheads and presenting them with six newly slaughtered pigs. The parallel between the island and the Earthly Paradise causes a trace of literary sophistication: 'Meat and drink on the same tree! My de ar boys, we're set up for life; it must be the ancient paradisehurrah! . . . We afterwards found, however, that these lovely islands were very unlike Paradise in many things.' But these 'things' are non-Christian natives and, later, pirates; the boys themselves are cleanly (cold baths recommended) and godlyregenerate, empire-building boys, who know by instinct how to turn paradise into a British protectorate. The Coral Island could be used as a document in the history of ideas; it belongs inseparably to the period when boys were sent out of Arnoldian schools certified free of Original Sin. Golding takes Ralph, Jack and Peterkin (altering this name to Simon, 'called Peter') and studies them against an altered moral landscape. He is a schoolmaster, and knows boys well enough to make their collapse into savagery plausible, to see them as the cannibals; the authority of the grown-ups is all there is to prevent savagery. If you dropped these boys into an Earthly Paradise 'they would not behave like God-fearing English gentlemen' but 'as like as not . . . find savages who were kindly and uncomplicated. . . The devil would rise out of the intellectual complications of the three white men.' Golding leaves the noble savages out of Lord of the Flies but this remark is worth quoting because it states the intellectual position in its basic simplicity. It is the civilized who are corrupt, out of phase with natural rhythm. Lord of the Flies Essay Writing Service Lord of the Flies book review writing is not easy for most students. Undoubtedly, free essays are not always the best source of information because they are free and are available for unlimited number of people. In addition, free essays may not provide answers to the specific questions given by the teacher.   Therefore, free essays should be used as sources of ideas, but should not be copied and submitted as your own.   Being our client, you get individual help of the professional writer who is capable of producing the best possible essay for you. We write all essays from scratch and we are never late with delivery of custom written assignments.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Culture, Ritual and Religion, International Development in the Research Paper

Culture, Ritual and Religion, International Development in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sierra Leone - Research Paper Example In Africa, countries have experienced recurrent and various forms of armed conflicts and violence due to power struggles and control over natural resources. Sierra Leone and Democratic Republic of Congo have bore the brunt of violence and armed conflicts in past decades, a fact that has led to development mishaps and stagnation. This paper examines the role of ritual, culture and religion in the shaping up of the social, economic and political stability of Sierra Leone and Democratic Republic of Congo. It further explores the role of violence and conflicts in the development process. Sierra Leone is located on the west Coast of Africa on the Atlantic Ocean and it is bordered to the North with Guinea, Liberia on the Southeast and Atlantic Ocean on the Southwest (Harris, 1992). Different ceremonies were held in Sierra Leone as part of the culture and religion of the people. One of the ceremonies that were more conspicuous was the movement in rings or circles during ceremonies to honor ancestors (Harris, 1992). The movement of people in circles during ceremonies defined the art and religion of most communities in Sierra Leone. It is reported that the culture and tradition was seen as heathen by the missionaries and as such, they searched for strategies of eliminating and eradicating the practice. The missionaries did not succeed in eradicating the practice due to the strong influence that culture had among communities in Sierra Leone. ... e purposes included story telling, singing of songs, drumming and dancing, pouring of libations, cleansing ceremonies, proper burials, respect for the dead and forgiveness (Kaarsholm, 2006). The traditional cultural practices and rituals have played significant roles in the development process of Sierra Leone. Modern development strategies have incorporated traditional cultural practices in various health and human welfare initiatives such as fight against HIV/AIDS, ending of harmful traditional practices such female genital mutilation, understanding of human rights and other initiatives that are associated with human welfare and development in Sierra Leone (Burnell, 2008). The uptake and use of various traditional cultural practices and rituals in modern human development initiatives in Sierra Leone has been premised on the notion that the use of culturally appropriate interventions that are drawn from the experience and knowledge of communities has the potential of increasing the l ong-term self-reliance of communities, families and children (Francis, 2006). In addition, the use of traditional practices and rituals encourages community members to take active roles in identification of development problems that affect them and formulation of strategies and solutions to mitigate such problems. The role of culture and traditions of Sierra Leone communities was relevant and instrumental in the truth and reconciliation process that paved way for political stability and tranquility. Most of the healing activities and initiatives were based on the culture and traditions of the people of Sierra Leone. The Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission of Sierra Leone relied on the assistance and help from traditional and religious leaders in resolving conflicts and promotion of

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Ethics in Law Enforcement Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Ethics in Law Enforcement - Essay Example Corruption is a term that springs easily to mind when one thinks of how law enforcement is usually applied. Popular culture is full of references to corrupt policemen and lawyers, especially in terms of how the police are often represented in movies and television shows, and also in terms of the numerous articles on police abuse that may be found in newspapers and other periodical. Especially after the events of September 11, 2001, and the racist attacks on Muslims and other Asian minorities in America came into the news, there has been a lot of negative publicity for the way in which minorities are apparently abused by many law-enforcement agencies. All these examples represent myths about law enforcement that are often belied by statistics. However, there is also some basis in reality for such opinions. In addition, corruption undermines respect for the rule of law and for the democratic process that are the very core of our system of government. Controlling this evil successfully is a constant challenge for any government. Yet any government that does not devote itself to this effort is in danger of sowing the seeds of its own destruction. (p. xi) The authors suggest, therefore, that instead of identifying the law enforcement system with corruption, there is the need to recognize that even the law is trying to fight corruption within itself. Corrupt practices are not an inherent or integral part of the law enforcement system. Rather, it is something that has crept into the system and must be weeded out. The corruption of law enforcement agencies is illustrated by the two interviews that were conducted as part of this study. The first will be discussed in the context of corruption. This instance is related to an interview with a twenty-seven-year-old white American woman who was a victim of hazing during her freshman year at a university in the U.S. Cindy (not her real name) recollects that she and her friends were wary of the senior students, because the college had a history of a couple of violent episodes of hazing. Apparently, the school authorities had done nothing about it. Cindy describes the night when she and her friends were abused by a large group of older students. They were forced to drink alcohol, and some of the senior students even urinated into their glasses and forced their victims to drink from them. They were also made to perform demanding exercises such as push-ups for almost three hours, and compelled to run around the campus a number of times. They were also verbally abused, many of the insults being gender- or race-based. Shortly after the incident, Cindy and a friend went to the neighborhood police precinct to lodge a complaint about what had been done to them. "I couldn't believe it," Cindy says. "None of the cops were ready to listen to us. Two who did pumped us for the 'juicy' details and then burst out laughing." Cindy's experience reveals that public faith in law enforcement authorities has diminished based on their reputation for treating victims badly. Although this was an isolated incident, there have been many reported instances of police cover-ups in similar cases, even in instances where students were killed or seriously injured as a result of hazing. Another instance in which law enforcement a

Friday, January 24, 2020

The Alamo :: essays research papers

To understand the real battle, one must appreciate its strategic context in the Texas Revolution.qv In December 1835 a Federalist army of Texan (or Texian,qv as they were called) immigrants, American volunteers, and their Tejanoqv allies had captured the town from a Centralist force during the siege of Bexar.qv With that victory, a majority of the Texan volunteers of the "Army of the People" left service and returned to their families. Nevertheless, many officials of the provisional governmentqv feared the Centralists would mount a spring offensive. Two main roads led into Texas from the Mexican interior. The first was the Atascosito Road,qv which stretched from Matamoros on the Rio Grande northward through San Patricio, Goliad, Victoria, and finally into the heart of Austin's colony. The second was the Old San Antonio Road,qv a camino real that crossed the Rio Grande at Paso de Francia (the San Antonio Crossingqv) and wound northeastward through San Antonio de Bà ©xar, B astrop, Nacogdoches, San Augustine, and across the Sabine River into Louisiana. Two forts blocked these approaches into Texas: Presidio La Bahà ­a (Nuestra Seà ±ora de Loreto Presidio) at Goliad and the Alamo at San Antonio. Each installation functioned as a frontier picket guard, ready to alert the Texas settlements of an enemy advance. James Clinton Neillqv received command of the Bexar garrison. Some ninety miles to the southeast, James Walker Fannin, Jr.,qv subsequently took command at Goliad. Most Texan settlers had returned to the comforts of home and hearth. Consequently, newly arrived American volunteers-some of whom counted their time in Texas by the week-constituted a majority of the troops at Goliad and Bexar. Both Neill and Fannin determined to stall the Centralists on the frontier. Still, they labored under no delusions. Without speedy reinforcements, neither the Alamo nor Presidio La Bahà ­a could long withstand a siege. At Bexar were some twenty-one artillery pieces of various caliber. Because of his artillery experience and his regular army commission, Neill was a logical choice to command. Throughout January he did his best to fortify the mission fort on the outskirts of town. Maj. Green B. Jameson,qv chief engineer at the Alamo, installed most of the cannons on the walls. Jameson boasted to Gen. Sam Houstonqv that if the Centralists stormed the Alamo, the defenders could "whip 10 to 1 with our artillery." Such predictions proved excessively optimistic. Far from the bulk of Texas settlements, the Bexar garrison suffered from a lack of even basic provender.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Possible Outcomes of Overpopulation

Possible Overpopulation Solutions The human population growth of the last century is tremendous. It required only forty years after 1950 for the population to double from 2. 5 billion to 5 billion. The factors affecting global human population are very simple. Theyre fertility, mortality, initial population and time. India, China and USA are the top countries that are currently in crisis because of overpopulation. Many of our basic resources are strained such as, food; one out of every seven people alive, go to bed hungry. 5,000 people die of malnutrition and hunger-related diseases. In many regions children's asthma has risen dramatically because of the air quality (www. howmany. org). Since this is happening, a result might be that there wouldn't be enough food, water, or shelter and therefore these numbers will increase. Scientists say solutions to this situation would be to plan out how many kids you want and use birth control.Some scientists think that the Government should adop t the slogan â€Å"Patriotic citizens stop at two children† and adjust tax and other policies (wmwnbcnews. com). Coaching Questions 1 . It's really feasible to control how many children a person has. In order to maintain urrent population, 1 kid per person is required. 2. We obtain energy from natural resources, fossil fuels, and nonrenewable energy. We would need more energy. Sometimes burning resources such as coal causes pollution. 3.Disease that spread fast in crowded conditions is: food poisoning, typhoid fever, tetanus and polio. These diseases can be treated and prevented with proper methods. 4. 14,475 deaths per day; in India the let vultures eat the dead; it's not practical to use land because of the growing population. Yes, building houses. 5. We need to conserve land and soil because we need somewhere to build houses and farms. . When land becomes a desert, this would be a problem because nothing grows in the desert. 7.Some residents get theirs from wells, some fro m city water in the ground 8. No, you cant add or lose water. 9. We would need a bigger hospital and a lot more schools; we would Just need to expand almost everything to adjust properly. 10. Yes , people will fight for what they need. Immigration would increase; people would move to places with the most resources. 1 1 . There would be less demand for animals which would give us more land 12. China, India and the USA. Possible Outcomes of Overpopulation By kiara_shonte

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Humoristische Karte Von Europa Im Jahre 1914 - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 551 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/09/14 Category Advertising Essay Did you like this example? Humoristische Karte von Europa im Jahre 1914 The cartoon impression of Europe shows a facial expression for each country on the map. There a 6 main forces: Germany, Italy, Austria- Hungary, Russia, England and France The German has a war helmet over his head, to show he is protected. He is full stretched and has the Frenchman by the throat and is beating aside the Russian bear. You can tell this is easy for the German as he is smiling. Its in the centre of all the controversy so it can fight from all angles. France are cowardly running away from Germany’s extending arm around its neck. The whole of the country looks scared and it looks like its running back for help. It is also carrying the Eiffel Tower, which indicates it’s the only thing France have got. Austria-Hungary is fighting Russia and Serbia and is kicking Montenegro in the back. It shows men fighting together against Russia, this shows there all in unity in fighting. All of its empire are attacking Russia with enthusiasm. The big character in Austria-Hungry looks like he is smiling and enjoying the moment Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Humoristische Karte Von Europa Im Jahre 1914" essay for you Create order Russia gruesomely opens its mouth to swallow Germany and Austria whole, it has a vodka bottle in one hand and a whip in the other. This indicates that the Russia is ruthless, aggressive, and it has a drink problem, like the Vikings. It looks like its waiting to attack the countries. There is also a powder keg at the bottom of the country, showing that with one little spark, all the opposing countries could be killed England is standing on bags of money, showing its either really rich or it doesn’t spend its money. The Bulldog portrays England as quite small but powerful and scary. Ireland is trying to cut the chain connecting them and Scotland, Wales and England. Japan is joined to England in unison, so wherever England go, Japan goes with them The Italy is staying in its boot, waiting for its moment to intervene and pounce. It looks calm and ready. Even though the above are the main countries to be portrayed, there are others as well. Spain is counting its money, possibly wondering whether to go to war if they have enough resources. Portugal is leaning comfortably on Spain, reading. This shows they are protected by Spain and they have no need to get involved. Holland has been hit by a bomb unexpectedly, interrupted because it looks like they had no intention of going to war. Denmark and Norway are proving their allegiance to Germany by applauding and making deliveries. Switzerland is just watching over everything, showing its neutral and has no foes. Romania is energetically forging its sword, preparing for war. Greece is carefully considering its next action, you can tell this by his facial thinking expression. Turkey is recovering on a sickbed, probably after a bad war. It also looks like Turkey aren’t giving Russia a light, which would cause the Russian powder keg to explode. Japan are being dragged into war by England and it grimly bares its predators teeth to Germany, showing its not scared. However this map is totally biased, it was made in Germany. The map was probably used for propaganda, to portray the central powers as the best.